Wednesday, October 31, 2007

Jan Vermeer van Delft (1632-1675)

Sierra Club


Johannes Vermeer (born 1632 in Delft, died 1675 in Delft) was a Dutch painter. Vermeer is also known as Vermeer of Delft or Johannes van der Meer. He created some of the most exquisite paintings in Western art. His works are rare. Of the 35 or 36 paintings generally attributed to him, most portray figures in interiors. All his works are admired for the sensitivity with which he rendered effects of light and color and for the poetic quality of his images. Little is known for certain about Vermeer's life and career. He was born in 1632, the son of a silk worker with a taste for buying and selling art. Vermeer himself was also active in the art trade. He lived and worked in Delft all his life. Not much is known about Vermeer's apprenticeship as an artist either. His teacher may have been Leonaert Bramer, a Delft artist who was a witness at Vermeer's marriage in 1653, or the painter Carel Fabritius of Delft. In 1653 he enrolled at the local artists guild. His earliest signed and dated painting, The Procuress (1656; Gemaldegalerie Alte Meister, Dresden), is thematically related to a Dirck van Baburen painting that Vermeer owned and that appears in the background of two of his own paintings. Another possible influence was that of Hendrick Terbrugghen, whose style anticipated the light color tonalities of Vermeer's later works.

  • Christ in the House of Martha and Mary - Edinburgh, National Gallery of Scotland - 1654/55
  • Saint Praxidis - Private Collection - 1655
  • Diana and her Companions - The Hague, Mauritshuis - 1655-56
  • The Procuress - Dresden, Gemäldegalerie - 1656
  • Girl reading a Letter at an Open Window - Dresden, Gemäldegalerie - 1657
  • A Girl Asleep - New York, Metropolitan Museum - 1657
  • The Little Street - Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum - 1657/58
  • Officer and a Laughing Girl - New York, Frick Collection - 1658
  • The Milkmaid - Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum - 1658/60
  • The Glass of Wine - Berlin, Gemäldegalerie - 1658/60
  • The Girl with the Wineglass - Braunschweig, Herzog Anton Ulrich Museum - 1659/60
  • Girl Interrupted at her Music - New York, Frick Collection - 1660/61
  • View of Delft - The Hague, Mauritshuis - 1660/61
  • Woman in Blue reading a Letter - Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum - 1662/64
  • A Lady writing a Letter - Washington DC, National Gallery of Art - 1662/64
  • The Music Lesson - London, Buckingham Palace - 1662/65
  • Woman with a Lute - New York, Metropolitan Museum - 1663
  • Woman with a Pearl Necklace - Berlin, Gemaldegalerie - 1664
  • Woman with a Water Jug - New York, Metropolitan Museum - 1664-65
  • The Girl with a Pearl Earring - The Hague, Mauritshuis - 1665
  • The Concert - Boston, Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum - 1665/66
  • A Woman Holding a Balance - Washington, National Gallery - 1665/66
  • Portrait of a Young Woman - New York, Metropolitan Museum - 1666/67
  • The Allegory of Painting - Vienna, Kunsthistorisches Museum - 1666/67
  • Mistress and Maid - New York, Frick Collection - 1667/68
  • The Astronomer - Paris, Louvre - 1668
  • Girl with a Red Hat - Washington, National Gallery - 1668
  • The Geographer - Frankfurt am Main, Steadelsches Kunstinstitut - 1668/69
  • The Lacemaker - Paris, Louvre - 1669/70
  • The Love Letter - Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum - 1669/70
  • Lady writing a Letter with her Maid - Blessington, Beit Collection - 1670
  • The Allegory of Faith - New York, Metropolitan Museum - 1671/74
  • The Guitar Player - London, Iveagh Bequest - 1672
  • Lady Standing at the Virginals - London, National Gallery - 1673/75
  • Lady Seated at the Virginals - London, National Gallery - 1673/75

Very few paintings of Vermeer are known, or Vermeer made very few paintings. Johannes Vermeer has only fairly recently been recognised as one of the greats, and at the beginning of the twentieth century, rumours ran rampant that there were yet undiscovered Vermeer paintings. Han van Meegeren (1889-1947) was originally a painter who liked to work in the classic tradition. Originally to prove that critics were wrong about his qualities as a painter, he decided to paint a fake Vermeer (or so he claimed). Later, he forged more Vermeers and works of other painters, just to get the money. At the end of the Second World War, the Allies came upon a salt mine in Austria where the top Nazis had hidden works of art they had plundered from the occupied countries of the Reich. The military brought in art experts to ensure that the treasures were properly handled, identified, and repatriated. Among the treasures were artworks from the collection of Nazi Reichsmarshall Hermann Goering. Goering's collection included a Vermeer that none of the experts were familiar with, and investigation traced it back to a Dutch citizen who was running a nightclub in Amsterdam named Han van Meegeren. The Dutch authorities pegged him as a collaborator when he could not explain the origins of the Vermeer, and arrested him in May 1945. Van Meegeren was potentially in very serious trouble, as he could be charged with treason, which carried the death penalty. After several days of intense interrogation, he told them the authorities the truth, which they did not believe at first: He had painted the Vermeer himself. Exactly how van Meegeren became a fraud is an interesting story, because he didn't do it for the money, at least not at first. He had been born in Deventer, the Netherlands in 1889, and had developed skills as a painter and a strong interest in the Dutch classic painters. His father violently opposed his work as a painter, but Han van Meegeren had a passion for it and could not be swayed from his life's work. Still, he had chosen a difficult path. He had turned away from modern art and there was no way he could achieve recognition painting in the styles that were popular centuries earlier. He was belittled by the critics to the extent that he could no longer exhibit his work. Van Meegeren thought the local art critics were mean and ignorant, and he decided to prove it by publicly embarrassing them. Van Meegeren was intimately familiar with the painting techniques of the Dutch masters, and decided to produce a fake Vermeer. He would let the art critics praise it, and then reveal that it was a fraud, proving their ignorance. His specific target was Dr. Abraham Bredius, who was a recognized authority on Vermeer and who van Meegeren particularly despised.

Van Meegeren was a painstakingly methodical forger. The painting not only had to be executed in Vermeer's style and skill, it had to look ancient as well. Van Meegeren found a 17th-century canvas to paint on, created his own paints from raw materials by old formulas to ensure that they were authentic, and used the same kind of brushes that Vermeer was known to have used. He came up with a scheme of using phenol and formaldehyde to cause the paints to harden after application, as if they were centuries old. After completing the painting, he baked it to dry it out completely, rolled it over a drum to crackle it a bit, and later washed it in black ink to fill in the cracks. It took van Meegeren several years to work out his techniques, and when he was done he was pleased with his work. It wasn't just that he thought it was a convincing fraud. He had always wanted to walk in the steps of the masters, and he felt that his forgery, Christ at Emmaus, was a fine work in its own right. Van Meegeren put his fraud in motion, and Dr. Bredius was completely taken in, just as van Meegeren had hoped. The Dutch art establishment was completely fooled as well, though when the painting was shown in Paris one perceptive or possibly merely cynical critic called it a "rotten fake". Van Meegeren was enjoying this wild ride, but it was only starting. He wanted to reveal the fraud, but when he sold the fake Vermeer for the equivalent of what would now be several million dollars, he unsurprisingly had second thoughts. He had proven to his own satisfaction that the Dutch art establishment was ignorant, and that would have to do as long as he could make good money. Between 1938 and 1945, he produced six more fake Vermeers, as well as fakes of works by Frans Hals and Pieter de Hooch. It would seem that people would have become suspicious after a while, but with the distractions of the war and Nazi occupation van Meegeren was able to continue his activities essentially unmolested. Since there was an active and secretive trade in artwork anyway during the occupation, his fakes could ride along with the process as parasites.

One of van Meegeren's forgeries was sold in 1942 for the 1.6 million Dutch guilders, making it one of the most expensive paintings ever sold. The last of van Meegeren's fakes was Christ with the Adultress, which changed hands a number of times and finally ended up in the collection of Reichsmarshall Goering, who handed over an outrageous sum for it. Goering wasn't too concerned about the money, however, since he paid in counterfeit currency. Christ with the Adultress was found in the Austrian salt mine by Allied forces, and led to van Meegeren's arrest. When he told the police that it was a forgery, they didn't believe him, and challenged him to show he could paint a copy of one of the supposed fakes. He replied that he could create an entirely new fake. He was put under house arrest, and in three weeks he painted a new forgery, The Young Christ Teaching in the Temple, under the eyes of undoubtedly flabbergasted police. The story got into the press and attracted worldwide media attention. The charge was changed to one of forgery. In the week before the trial, a poll showed he was the second most popular man in the Netherlands, after the prime minister.

The trial began on 29 October 1947. Van Meegeren, then 58 and in failing health, was delighted with the show and the media attention. He really wanted to be found guilty, simply as confirmation that he was a master forger. The art experts didn't want to testify, since it would confirm they had been duped, but a committee was put together to investigate the forgeries. Van Meegeren knew his paintings would be X-rayed to see what was painted on the old canvas underneath, and he told the committee what they would find. They did so, and after only two days on trial, van Meegeren was found guilty of forgery. He was sentenced to two years in prison. His health was so bad, however, that he went to a clinic instead of prison. He died on 29 December 1947. Although van Meegeren may have not been much of a role model, he had walked in the steps of the Dutch masters as he had always wanted to do; made a fortune for himself in trying times; made fools of the art establishment that had reviled him, and who nobody else liked; even tricked the Nazis; become an international celebrity and a national hero of sorts; and then made an exit effectively unscathed. All in all, a person could do a hell of a lot worse. [This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License and uses material adapted in whole or in part from the Wikipedia article on Jan Vermeer van Delft.]


Please browse our Amazon list of titles about Jan Vermeer van Delft. For rare and hard to find works we recommend our Alibris list of titles about Jan Vermeer van Delft.


Lecture: Baroque Art
COPAC UK: Johannes Vermeer
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Library of Congress: Jan Vermeer van Delft
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